HSG is an X-ray of the uterine cavity and Fallopian tube. It is performed by injecting an iodine based dye into the uterine cavity and taking sequential X-rays of the pelvis. HSG testing can reveal uterine abnormalities including, uterine scar tissue, septum, fibroids, polyps, tubal blockage proximal or distal, Hydrosalpinx, proximal tubal disease, and pelvic adhesions. If there is no blockage present in the tubes, the dye will spill into the abdominal cavity. Dye flowing into the abdominal cavity does not guarantee normal function, but it is a positive sign.
In some cases, pushing dye through the fallopian tube will remove any material that is causing a blockage. In fact, some women have become pregnant following a Hysterosalpingogram without the use of further fertility treatments.
No special preparation is needed for Hysterosalpingogram, but in some cases, antibiotics need to be taken to protect against infection. You may also need to take anti-inflammatory medication, such as Motrin, an hour before your exam to help alleviate cramping. You may also experience a sensation of warmth during the Hysterosalpingogram, but many patients report little discomfort.
After HSG, you may experience mild discomfort or cramps and you could also experience light spotting. You may resume normal activity immediately, but your doctor may ask you to refrain from sexual intercourse for a few days after the test.